There are multiple other factors along the coagulation cascade, therefore it’s possible for there to be other factor deficiencies beyond those that cause hemophilia A, hemophilia B, and von Willebrand disease (VWD).1 The following disorders may arise at the other points along the cascade where clotting factors are deficient.
Factor I Deficiency
Also known as fibrinogen deficiency, this rare disorder affects both platelets and clotting and is found in both males and females. The complete absence of Factor I, or afibrinogenemia, is usually discovered in newborns, due to bleeding from the umbilical cord or after circumcision. The incidence of Factor I deficiency is estimated at 1 to 2 per million. Another variation is called dysfibrinogenemia, in which normal levels of fibrinogen do not function properly.2
Factor II Deficiency
This bleeding disorder, also known as prothrombin deficiency, is extremely rare and affects both males and females equally. The estimated rate of occurrence is 1 in 2,000,000 people worldwide.3
Factor V Deficiency
Factor V deficiency is also known as parahemophilia. First identified in Norway in 1943, this disorder has been estimated to occur in only about 1 in 1,000,000 people and affects both men and women equally.4
Factor VII Deficiency
This rare disorder, also known as proconvertin deficiency or Alexander's disease, is often diagnosed at birth. The incidence of Factor VII deficiency is estimated to be 1 in 300,000 to 500,000 people, and affects men and women equally.5
Factor X Deficiency
Factor X deficiency can also be known as Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, after the first two people identified with this bleeding disorder. This bleeding disorder has been estimated to occur in 1 in 500,000 to 1,000,000 people and affects men and women equally.6
Factor XI Deficiency
This rare disorder is also known as hemophilia C. It occurs in approximately 1 in 100,000 people, although it is found more frequently among some ethnic groups (primarily those with Jewish ethnicity of eastern European descent). Also, unlike hemophilia A and B, the rates of this disorder are equal among men and women.7
Factor XII Deficiency
Factor XII deficiency can also be known as Hageman factor deficiency, after the first patient diagnosed with the disorder. First identified in 1955, this disorder occurs in an estimated 1 in 1,000,000 people and affects men and women equally.9
Factor XIII Deficiency
In this rare disorder, also known as fibrin stabilizing factor deficiency, the affected person lacks the necessary factor for proper clot formation and wound healing. Without factor XIII, a clot forms normally, but the clot breaks down and bleeding starts again. This disorder is another rare inherited factor deficiency, occurring in an estimated 1 in 5,000,000 people and affects men and women equally.10
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