Other types of bleeding disorders

If you have a blood disorder, you're not alone. There are many different kinds. Discover the facts about each factor.

The coagulation cascade

There are multiple other factors along the coagulation cascade, so it’s possible for there to be other clotting factor deficiencies beyond those that cause von Willebrand disease (VWD), hemophilia A, and hemophilia B.1

These disorders might happen at other points on the cascade, where clotting factors are deficient or abnormal.

Blood drop left icon.

Factor I

Also known as fibrinogen deficiency, this rare disorder affects both platelets and clotting and is found in both males and females. The complete absence of Factor I, or afibrinogenemia, is usually discovered in newborns, due to bleeding from the umbilical cord or after circumcision. The incidence of Factor I deficiency is estimated at 1 to 2 per million. Another variation is called dysfibrinogenemia, where there is an abnormal form of fibrinogen, resulting in defective clot formation.2

  • Common symptoms include easy bruising, nose and mouth bleeds, and soft tissue bleeds. Joint and muscle bleeds are possible. Women may experience excessive menstrual bleeding2

Factor II

This bleeding disorder, also known as prothrombin deficiency, is extremely rare and affects both males and females equally. The estimated rate of occurrence is 1 in 2,000,000 people worldwide.3

  • Common symptoms include excessive menstrual bleeding, easy bruising, and hemorrhage after trauma3

Factor V

Factor V deficiency is also known as parahemophilia. First identified in Norway in 1943, this disorder has been estimated to occur in only about 1 in 1,000,000 people and affects both men and women equally.4

  • Common symptoms include nose bleeds, bruising, and excessive menstrual bleeding4

Factor VII

This rare disorder, also known as proconvertin deficiency or Alexander's disease, is often diagnosed at birth. The incidence of Factor VII deficiency is estimated to be 1 in 300,000 to 500,000 people, and affects men and women equally.5

  • Common symptoms include sustained bleeding in newborns' central nervous system or gastrointestinal tract and excessive menstrual bleeding in women; children and adults may also experience spontaneous bleeding from the nose, gums, or genitourinary tract5

Factor X

Factor X deficiency can also be known as Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, after the first 2 people identified with this bleeding disorder. This condition has been estimated to occur in 1 in 500,000 to 1,000,000 people and affects men and women equally.6

  • Common symptoms may include mild to severe symptoms, including nose bleeds, frequent bruising, excessive menstrual bleeding, and intramuscular bleeding; bleeding within the skull may be severe6

Factor XI

This rare disorder is also known as hemophilia C. It occurs in approximately 1 in 100,000 people, although it is found more frequently among some ethnic groups (primarily those with Jewish ethnicity of eastern European descent). Also, unlike hemophilia A and B, the rates of this disorder are equal among men and women.7

  • Symptoms are usually milder than other bleeding disorders, but some patients may experience frequent nose bleeds or soft tissue bleeds while others may have delayed bleeding after procedures like tooth extractions8

Factor XII

Factor XII deficiency can also be known as Hageman factor deficiency, after the first patient diagnosed with the disorder. First identified in 1955, this disorder occurs in an estimated 1 in 1,000,000 people and affects men and women equally.9

  • This disorder is unusual in that bleeding symptoms are rare. Patients with this deficiency have poor wound healing but most do not have bleeding issues even after major surgeries9

Factor XIII

In this rare disorder, also known as fibrin stabilizing factor deficiency, the affected person lacks the necessary factor for proper clot formation and wound healing. Without factor XIII, a clot forms normally, but the clot breaks down and bleeding starts again. This disorder is another rare inherited factor deficiency, occurring in an estimated 1 in 5,000,000 people and affects men and women equally10

  • Symptoms include bleeding after birth from the umbilical cord. Adults and children can experience bruising, muscle bleeds, and delayed bleeding after surgery. Bleeding into the brain, a life-threatening condition, can occur spontaneously10

Keep exploring

Woman studying at the library.

Treatment options for von Willebrand disease

Doctor discussing treatment options with a patient during an appointment.

Treatment options for hemophilia A

Pharmacist organizing drawer with medications.

Treatment options for hemophilia B

  1. What are rare clotting factor deficiencies? World Federation of Hemophilia website. https://elearning.wfh.org/elearning-centres/rare-clotting-factor-deficiencies/#rare_clotting_factor_deficiencies. Updated May 2014. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  2. Factor I. National Hemophilia Foundation website. https://www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-I. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  3. Factor II. National Hemophilia Foundation website. https://www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-II. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  4. Factor V. National Hemophilia Foundation website. https://www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-V. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  5. Factor VII. National Hemophilia Foundation website. https://www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-VII. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  6. Factor X. National Hemophilia Foundation website. https://www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-X. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  7. Factor XI. National Hemophilia Foundation website. https://www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-XI. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  8. What is factor XI deficiency? World Federation of Hemophilia website. https://elearning.wfh.org/elearning-centres/rare-clotting-factor-deficiencies/#factor_xi. Updated May 2012. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  9. Factor XII. National Hemophilia Foundation website. https://www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-XII. Accessed February 11, 2023.
  10. Factor XIII. National Hemophilia Foundation website. https://www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-XIII. Accessed February 11, 2023.